John F. Kennedy's medical secrets linger

John F. Kennedy's medical secrets linger - Health - CBC News

Doctors continue to look for clues to former U.S. President John F. Kennedy's secret medical history, 50 years after his assassination.

At 43, Kennedy was the youngest man elected U.S. president following a campaign that portrayed him as the epitome of youth and vigour. But a review of Kennedy"s White House medical records and correspondence from his physicians revealed a complex medical history.
JFK Caroline Kennedy
In this Nov. 9, 1960 photo, Caroline Kennedy gets a piggy-back ride from her father, Sen. John F. Kennedy, in Hyannis Port, Mass.(The Associated Press)

This week " a half century after his death in Dallas " the Annals of Internal Medicine released a 2009 review titled "Endocrine and autoimmune aspects of the health history of John F. Kennedy," to the media.
John F. Kennedy's assassination, 50 years later

During the 1960 presidential campaign, JFK's diagnosis of Addison's disease was covered up and wasn't disclosed until the 1976 publication of the book, The Search for JFK, by Joan and Clay Blair.
Obit-Kenneth Battelle
A Jan. 20, 1961 photo shows President John F. Kennedy and first lady Jacqueline Kennedy as they attend one of five inaugural balls in Washington.Lifelong friend Lem Billings said pictures of Kennedy show he appeared heavier in January 1961 than in July 1960, with a total weight gain of about 15 pounds. (The Associated Press)

"The crux of the cover-up rested on the cleverly worded statement claiming that Kennedy 'does not now nor has he ever had an ailment described classically as Addison"s disease, which is a tuberculose [sic] destruction of the adrenal gland,'" Dr. Lee Mandel of the U.S. Navy Medical Corps in Chesapeake, Va. wrote in the journal.

In fact, Mandel noted, Addison's disease has an autoimmune cause in nearly 80 per cent of cases and tuberculosis accounts for only 10 per cent " a narrow definition that successfully deflected further questions.

The Addison's disease was diagnosed when Kennedy was 30 years old and he was found to have hypothyroidism when he was a senator.

The combination of autoimmune adrenal disease and hypothyroidism is consistent with a rare autoimmune endocrine disorder called autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2, or APS2, the journal's editors said.

While it is "probable that Kennedy had APS2," confirmatory antibodies are essential to the diagnosis. But it's still unknown whether Kennedy was tested for these because the office records of his endocrinologist, Dr. Eugene Cohen, are not available to researchers.

The article also outlines JFK's medical profile from sources including:
Letters from his doctors to his father documenting the boy's exceedingly low blood pressure in 1940.Comments from a pathology resident present at the autopsy who confirmed Kennedy had almost no adrenal tissue, consistent with "adrenal atrophy," despite a lack of comments on the adrenal glands in the official autopsy.Statements by historian Robert Dallek and his medical consultant, Dr. Jeffrey Kelman, that Kennedy took testosterone to keep his weight up, and statements from friends, doctors and relatives about his weight gain.Family history: Kennedy's younger sister, Eunice, had Addison's disease and his son, John F. Kennedy Jr., had Graves disease.Gastrointestinal symptoms JFK was known to have, such as cramping, diarrhea, and the inability to gain weight for most of his life.Testosterone prescription, which may have been started during the 1960 presidential campaign. Mandel said testosterone was probably needed because of long-term steroid replacement therapy or possibly the autoimmune disease. When he started testosterone therapy remains a matter of conjecture.


Police officer's killer gets life | Sky News Australia

Police officer's killer gets life | Sky News Australia

Police officer's killer gets life
Updated: 15:50, Friday October 4, 2013Police officer's killer gets life

Michael Allan Jacobs has been jailed forlife for the murder of Tamworth policeman David Rixon.

Senior Constable Rixon's widow Fiona Rixon, his children, hisparents, NSW police minister Michael Gallacher, assistantCommissioner Mark Murdoch, NSW Police Association's Scott Weber andhomicide superintendent Chris Olen were all present in the packedcourtroom.

A large group of police officers, who were transported toSydney's Supreme Court on a bus from Tamworth, also attended theproceedings.

Before sentencing, Justice Richard Button described at lengththe seriousness of murdering a police officer, saying it was moreserious than killing a civilian.

'The murder of a police officer is a direct assault on oursystem of parliamentary democracy,' he said.

Justice Button also said he was 'satisfied beyond reasonabledoubt that... he intended to kill him.'

Jacobs' month-long trial earlier this year heard he shot theTamworth father-of-six in the chest after being pulled over for arandom breath test.

Sen Const Rixon returned fire, hitting Jacobs in the abdomen,leg and shoulder.

Jacobs could then be heard screaming, 'Die, I'm sorry. Sorrysir, sorry'.

Sen Const Rixon, 40, died at the scene while Jacobs underwentlife-saving surgery.

During his five-week trial earlier this year, Jacobs, 49, triedto pin the blame on a local drug dealer, Terry Price, but this wasrejected by the jury, who took only an hour to find him guilty.

The Crown argued that Jacobs had been disqualified from drivingand was facing the threat of imprisonment when he was approached bythe officer.

In 2011, the NSW government passed a law to make life sentencesmandatory for people who murder police officers.

The Police Association of NSW welcomed the life sentence handedto Jacobs.

'This is about ensuring the strongest possible message - thosewho murder police will be locked up for life,' the association'spresident said in a statement.

Mr Weber said the sentence had 'been a long time coming'.

'It highlights that David Rixon did not give his life in vain,'he said.

'The life sentence given to Jacobs doesn't take away the painand senseless waste of the life he so callously took, we all feelthe loss.'

More than a dozen police officers formed a guard of honouroutside the court as the Rixon family and the state's top copswalked out of the Supreme Court building.

Outside the court, NSW Police Minister Michael Gallacher said'today the courts got it right'.

'The legislation was absolutely spot on, the interpretation spoton,' he said.

'Let this serve as an example to all those in the future whothink it's okay to harm our police officers.'

Police Commissioner Andrew Scipione said it was an emotional dayfor the police force, which had lost one of its finest.

'Today justice has been served and served well.'

Ms Rixon was close to tears as she made a short statement to thelarge media pack thanking the police force and the Tamworthcommunity.

'I'm very proud of my children - we've been through thishurricane, tornado, roller coaster ride, whatever you want to callit, for the last 18 months.'
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